What is a freight forwarder? Types and functions

The freight forwarder or forwarding agent is an indispensable member of the international trade and transport community; the freight forwarder arranges for the international shipment of merchandise. Like travel agents – but dealing with cargo rather than passengers – freight forwarder use their knowledge of varying freight rates to offer the shipper the bet “package deal”. In addition to booking ... Read More »

How to find importers?: essential tools

how to find importers

How to find importers is the first question that a company asks itself when starting to sell abroad. The answer may seem obvious: on the Internet. However, it is far from certain unless the company knows precisely which are the most useful and cost-effective tools for identifying importers in foreign markets. Although on the Internet there are hundreds of websites ... Read More »

International Agency Contract Templates: Key Terms

Before entering into an agreement with a commercial agent overseas, export companies need to have a model of International Comercial Agency Contract that regulates the relationship between the exporter (the “principal” in the contract) and the agent. When drafting and negotiating this type of contract template, companies must take into account the following: SPECIFY THE TERRITORY Before specifying the territory ... Read More »

New Union Customs Code (UCC)

NEW UNION CUSTOMS CODE

María Jesús Gómez Arriba*   The Union Customs Code (UCC) entered into force in its entirety in Europe on 1 May 2016. Its implementation will be completed at the end of 2020, when all the European Union (EU) countries have the required information systems. In the meantime, it will be supplemented by two Commission Delegated Regulations and a Commission Implementing ... Read More »

International Construction Contract: Key clauses

The International Construction Contract has become one of the international models of international contracts used most frequently since in recent years numerous construction projects and infrastructures have been made by Western companies (from Germany, France, Spain) in emerging countries. Due to local contractors’ lack of experience, international contractors have carried out construction projects in developed countries and this situation is ... Read More »

What is a turnkey contract?

A Turnkey Contract is one under which the contractor is responsible for both the design and construction of a facility. The basic concept is that in a Turnkey Contract the contractor shall provide the works ready for use at the agreed price and by a fixed date. The reality is that the employer wants to be and should be actively ... Read More »

Contracts in the United States: Drafting and Negotiation

Contracts in the United States

Foreign companies doing business in the United States often consider using the same contract templates as in other Western countries, especially those governed by the Common Law system, given that, due to historical and political ties between the USA and the United Kingdom, the American legal system is based on the British Common Law System. This article contains an outline ... Read More »

Contracts in India: Key Points

Contracts in India Key Points

When foreign companies are required to enter into Contracts in India, they often consider using the same models of international contracts than in Western countries, especially those which are governed by the Common Law system, given that, due to historical and political ties between India and United Kingdom -including membership in the Commonwealth- the Indian legal system is based on ... Read More »

Business in Ukraine: Opportunities for Foreign Companies

The current political situation has created new opportunities for doing business in Ukraine because of its progressive approach to Europe and the implementation of important reforms aimed at turning the country into a free economy, washing away, at least, a part of the burden of corruption and oligarchy. Ukraine, a relatively unknown country for many until not long ago, has ... Read More »

Russian Business Contracts: Negotiating and Contract Law

Foreign companies which carry out Russian business contracts are obliged to know about not only the Russian Contract Law – which has similarities to a continental legal model – but also, above all, the most common practices used by Russian companies and executives when they negotiate contracts with foreign companies. In contracts entered into in Russia, companies should not look ... Read More »