Broker Agreement Template: Types and Main Clauses

A Broker Agreement is a type of contract use mainly in international trade that sets forth the terms and conditions under which a Broker will either: find interested buyers for goods and/or services being sold by a Seller, or find goods and/or services for a Buyer to purchase. The Broker’s role may be limited to just introducing a buyer and a seller, or may ... Read More »

Doing Business in Africa: Opportunities and Negotiation

Doing business in Africa is becoming increasingly attractive and easy for Western companies that are identifying new opportunities on the African continent. For this reason, both European countries and the United States are implementing policies to access African markets, although China is the main investor and supplier on the continent. Chinese strategy has consisted on investing in the primary sector ... Read More »

What Is Business Sale Agreement?: Main Issues and Clauses

The Business Sale Agreement is used for anyone who wants to purchase or sell a business or the assets comprising all or part of a business. In this document, pertinent identifying details will be entered, such as whether the parties are individuals or businesses (most often, in Business Sale Agreements, it is a company selling to a company, but of course, individuals ... Read More »

CMR Consignement Note: meaning and template

CMR TRANSPORT DOCUMENT FORM

A CMR note is an International Consignment note that is the standard contract of carriage of goods document that is used when transporting goods Internationally via road. The CMR note can also be known as a CMR Waybill or International Consignment Note (ICN). The CMR Consignment note was defined under the 1956 United Nations Convention for the Contract of the ... Read More »

What is Due Diligence?: meaning, templates and report

Due Diligence is an investigation of a business prior to entering a contract. It often involves a comprehensive appraisal to establish assets and liabilities or to evaluate commercial potential. Though Due Diligence is important anywhere, it is doubly important when dealing with companies in countries where things are often not what they seem and where the legal system is less ... Read More »

International trade documents and payment methods

International trade documents are an integral part of all international payment methods, including documentary credits, letters of credit L/C, documents against payment, and documents against acceptance. The documents called for by a payment type will differ somewhat according to the nature of the goods and the countries of export and import. Some documents, however, such as the International Commercial Invoice ... Read More »

What is e-CMR?: benefits and implementation

The e-CMR or electronic CMR is the digital equivalent of the CMR Transport Document in paper-based format that is used and signed in 4 copies (sender, consignee, carrier and administration. Its use implies adherence to the CMR Agreement (Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route) that regulates it. At present, 25 European countries have already ratified the e-CMR protocol, ... Read More »

Buying agents: functions, commission and contract

Buying agents –also known as purchasing agents– are increasingly used in foreign trade operations: exports and imports. Buying agents are responsible for buying supplies, products, materials and services at the lowest possible price while maintaining a high level of quality. Buying agents must be skilled in assessing current market conditions as they directly affect supply and demand for services and ... Read More »

Incoterms explained in 10 key dates

Incoterms can be explained thanks to a group of entrepreneurs, financiers and traders whose determination to bring economic prosperity to a post-World War I era eventually led to the founding of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). With no global system of rules to govern trade, it was these businessmen who saw the opportunity to create an industry standard that would ... Read More »

What is a pre-shipment inspection (PSI)?

The Pre-Shipment Inspection (PSI) can refer, depending on the country, to the verification of the quality and quantity of the exported goods, their packaging, their price (export market price, value in customs), customs classification, as well as suitability for importation. These type of inspections are carried out by specialized private companies that must respect the Agreement of the World Trade ... Read More »