Confidentiality Contracts: Types and Models

Confidentiality Contracts are intended to protect certain information that must be provided in the course of a commercial relationship, either with partners, distributors, suppliers, employees or consultants. Basically, a confidentiality contract has three functions: Confidentiality contracts define exactly what information can and cannot be disclosed. They protect sensitive technical or commercial information from disclosure to others. The use of confidentiality ... Read More »

Shareholders Agreement for a New Company or Startup: Template and Main Elements

The Shareholders Agreement for a new company or startup is an agreement signed by the Shareholders whose purpose is to govern the internal relations within the company, as well as to establish the dispute resolution channels of any conflicts which may arise. Whereas a Shareholders’ Agreement may be executed at any given moment during the life of a company, the ... Read More »

Keys to doing business in Sweden

José María Rodriguez Clemente* Sweden is not only today a prosperous, stable and commercially consolidated country, but also the leader in economic growth of the region known as Scandinavia, (formed together with Denmark, Norway, and Finland), and the strongest commercial partner of Spain among the Nordic countries. Today is at the top of many rankings of competitiveness and ease of ... Read More »

30 International Etiquette Rules You Have to Know

When doing business abroad, it is advisable to know the main rules of international etiquette. The culture and tradition of each country make people behave differently, and if the business executive does not know how to adapt to that behavior, it can provoke a rejection from the other party, which makes it more difficult or even endangers the success of ... Read More »

Technology Transfer Agreements Guidelines

The Technology Transfer Agreement is increasingly used in technological cooperation strategies when the most innovative companies try to enter new markets. In this sense, technology transfer contracts (intellectual property rights or know-how, depending on whether the technology involved is registered or not) are expansion vehicles for companies that do not wish to make a direct investment in the country of ... Read More »

International Contract for Sale of Goods: 10 Key Clauses

By definition, International Sales of Goods Contracts imply that the sellers and buyers are located in different countries. This presents and obvious potential for confusion, as most commercial law is country specific, reflecting national trade practices, values and public policy. However, some general advice is possible for several reasons. In first place, there are many similarities among the different bodies ... Read More »

International Franchise Agreement: Key Elements and Types

International Franchise Agreement: Key Elements and Types

The International Franchise Agreement is usually defined as a contract whereby the franchisor grants the franchisee (based in another country), in exchange for direct or indirect financial compensation, the right to exploit a package of industrial or intellectual property rights relating mainly to know-how and commercial symbols, and to receive continuing commercial or technical assistance for the duration of the ... Read More »

Incoterms 2020: Main Changes

Olegario LLamazares* The new Incoterms 2020 are being drafted in the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) as the body that publishes them since 1930. In the last decades, there has always been a revision of Incoterms Rules coinciding with the first year of each decade 1990, 2000, 2010, which is the latest version and currently in force. Incoterms 2020 are ... Read More »

What is NCND Non-Circumvention & Non-Disclosure Agreement?

The NCND Non-Circumvention & Non-Disclosure Agreement is intended to protect the rights of occasional intermediaries in international trade that provide certain services:  promotion of business, making contacts with third parties, assistance in negotiating contracts and wishing to be protected against the risk of being “circumvented” by the other party (i.e., its client) and, consequently, not being paid the commission for ... Read More »

Doing business in Romania: 10 keys

Doing Business in Romania

José María Rodriguez Clemente* One of the countries in Europe that offers good opportunities for doing business is Romania, since in addition to its status as a Member State of the European Union (EU), it constitutes a market of twenty million people with many needs to be met in order to reach the status of its main European partners in ... Read More »