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Author Archives: Olegario Llamazares

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Economista, director de Global Marketing Strategies y socio fundador del portal Globalnegotiator. Está especializado en negocios internacionales con un énfasis en comercio exterior, marketing y negociación internacional. Tiene su residencia en Madrid, España.Economist, managing director of Global Marketing Strategies and founding partner of the website Global Negotiator. He specializes in international business with an emphasis on trade, marketing and negotiation.

CMR Consignement Note: meaning and template

CMR TRANSPORT DOCUMENT FORM

A CMR note is an International Consignment note that is the standard contract of carriage of goods document that is used when transporting goods Internationally via road. The CMR note can also be known as a CMR Waybill or International Consignment Note (ICN). The CMR Consignment note was defined under the 1956 United Nations Convention for the Contract of the ... Read More »

What is Due Diligence?: meaning, templates and report

Due Diligence is an investigation of a business prior to entering a contract. It often involves a comprehensive appraisal to establish assets and liabilities or to evaluate commercial potential. Though Due Diligence is important anywhere, it is doubly important when dealing with companies in countries where things are often not what they seem and where the legal system is less ... Read More »

International trade documents and payment methods

International trade documents are an integral part of all international payment methods, including documentary credits, letters of credit L/C, documents against payment, and documents against acceptance. The documents called for by a payment type will differ somewhat according to the nature of the goods and the countries of export and import. Some documents, however, such as the International Commercial Invoice ... Read More »

What is e-CMR?: benefits and implementation

The e-CMR or electronic CMR is the digital equivalent of the CMR Transport Document in paper-based format that is used and signed in 4 copies (sender, consignee, carrier and administration. Its use implies adherence to the CMR Agreement (Contrat de Transport International de Marchandises par Route) that regulates it. At present, 25 European countries have already ratified the e-CMR protocol, ... Read More »

Buying agents: functions, commission and contract

Buying agents –also known as purchasing agents– are increasingly used in foreign trade operations: exports and imports. Buying agents are responsible for buying supplies, products, materials and services at the lowest possible price while maintaining a high level of quality. Buying agents must be skilled in assessing current market conditions as they directly affect supply and demand for services and ... Read More »

Incoterms explained in 10 key dates

Incoterms can be explained thanks to a group of entrepreneurs, financiers and traders whose determination to bring economic prosperity to a post-World War I era eventually led to the founding of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). With no global system of rules to govern trade, it was these businessmen who saw the opportunity to create an industry standard that would ... Read More »

What is a pre-shipment inspection (PSI)?

The Pre-Shipment Inspection (PSI) can refer, depending on the country, to the verification of the quality and quantity of the exported goods, their packaging, their price (export market price, value in customs), customs classification, as well as suitability for importation. These type of inspections are carried out by specialized private companies that must respect the Agreement of the World Trade ... Read More »

Incoterms 2020: transfer of ownership and payment risk

Incoterms 2020 do not regulate the transfer of ownership of the merchandise, nor the sale price, the form of payment, the general conditions of sale, etc. These issues are defined in the International Sale Contract that materializes the consent between the seller and the buyer. Exporters and importers often confuse risk transfer with transfer of ownership. This confusion is understandable ... Read More »

International Arbitration: Practice and Arbitration Courts

The use of international arbitration is increasingly frequent due to the complexity of international operations, as well as the existence of multiple contracts and the plurality of parties. Therefore, it is important to take this aspect into account when drafting the dispute resolution clause, as well as when choosing the applicable arbitration rules. Arbitration is a process of dispute resolution ... Read More »

What is an export business plan?

EXPORT BUSINESS PLAN

The purpose of the Export Business Plan is to prepare companies, specially middle and small, to enter the international marketplace or to better organize their existing international business activity. The Plan will serve as a step-by-step guide to lead the company through the process of exporting products and services to international markets. The purpose of the Plan is to address ... Read More »