The preparation of goods for international shipping. The degree of export packing required greatly depends on the kind of product, the mode of transportation, and the facilities at the shipment and destination port or airport. Shipments made by vessel typically require extensive packing and moisture protection because of longer transit time, exposure to the humid environment, and the fact that they are usually handled and re-handled more than with other transport modes. Although containerization may reduce the need for crating, it does not remove the need for robust packing and careful container loading. Shipments made by air may require a lesser degree of export packing than vessel shipments because the transit times are shorter and air cargo itself tends to be of a lighter weight. However, changes in temperature and altitude may cause condensation, so effective moisture protection is often required. Ground-only shipments made among countries connected by first class infrastructure may often be treated as domestic shipments, unless long distances or multi-modal transport (truck-rail-truck) is involved. Shippers of fragile products or those receiving frequent complaints of in-transit damage should consider consulting a surveyor for specific packing recommendations. To prevent introduction of non-native pests, some countries (for example, Australia) prohibit the importation of non-treated coniferous wood packing materials (pallets) from certain originating countries.