A person or company that arranges transportation, usually on behalf of the party contracting for main carriage. Many forwarders provide additional services, such as assistance with country specific documentary requirements, insurance, storage, and even customs clearance. Some forwarders also act as carriers (air freight consolidators or NVOOCs). Typically, forwarders obtain brokerage commission income from the carriers they select. This minimizes the fees that they charge to clients, and makes using forwarders cost-competitive. Some countries require that forwarders obtain a license, al least to be eligible for brokerage income. Also called freight forwarder.